Dosages and application method:
Specially indicated for vegetative growing stages as foliar application or at any time to the soil as drench.
Standard dose is 1Lt-3Lt/Ha. Repeating 15 days interval.
Specific crop protocols are available.
BUNEBA H can be mixed with any fertilizer, fungicide, pesticide, facilitating its action by the penetrating effect of its formula.
Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable product.
Humic and Fulvic acids’s role in plant and soil nutrition
AN UNDISPUTABLE IMPACT ON PLANT METABOLISM AND SOIL STRUCTURE.
Humic substances not only impact on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils, they also have a direct influence on plants and crops. Indeed, some recent studies have shown that humic substances contain auxin or stimulate the activity of auxin-like molecules. They influence the uptake of ions by plants and they stimulate plant growth with efficiency comparable to auxin(AIA).
Humic substances have also been reported to activate the second metabolism of plants, to increase CO2 uptake, synthesis of ATP, and respiration of mitochondria and to influence photosynthesis.
Finally, the presence of AIA (or AIA-like molecules) in humic substances has been proved using ELISA method and liquid phase analysis.
Worth noting that studies using humic substances marked with fluorescein have shown that the impact of humic substances on plants is mostly due to the fulvic acids: indeed fulvic acids easily penetrate in plants while humic acids – with their higher molecular weight – remain outside.
Extensive studies have shown that not much of the humic substances in soils are in a free state but much is bound to colloidal clay. The ways in which humic substances combine with the mineral fraction of the soil may be:
• As salts of low molecular weight – organic acids (acetate, oxalate, lactate and others) with magnesite, calcite, siderite and others.
• As salts of humic substances with alkaline cations – humic acids, fulvic acids. These are the most characteristic compounds of soil humic substances. The alkaline cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) are held primarily by simple cation exchange with COOH groups (RCOONa, RCOOK etc.). The humates and fulvates largely occur in soils as mixtures with Iron and Aluminium hydroxides.
• As chelate with metal ions. A chelate complex is formed when two or more coordinate positions of a metal ion are occupied by donor groups of a single ligand to form an internal ring structure. The complexing ability of humic and fulvic acids results largely from their content of oxygen-containing functional groups, such as COOH, phenolic OH and C=O groups.
Soil organic constituents form both soluble and insoluble complexes with metal ions and thereby play a dual role in soil.
Low molecular weight compounds (biochemicals, fulvic acids) bring about the solubilization of metal ions and affect their transport to plant roots.
In contrast, high molecular weight compounds (e.g. humic acids) function as a “sink” for polyvalent cations. Natural complexing agents are of considerable importance in weathering processes and in the movement of sesquioxides into the subsoil.
• As substances held on clay mineral surfaces. The interaction of organic substances with clay has a multitude of consequences that are reflected in the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil matrix.
Several mechanisms are involved in the adsorption of humic substances by clay minerals, the main ones being: Van der Waals’ forces, bonding by cation bridging, H – bonding, adsorption by association with hydrous oxides, adsorption on interlamellar spaces of clay minerals.